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 Symptoms & Signs, Examining a Victim, Treatment & Aftercare

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chuciamin



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Registration date : 2011-10-25

PostSubject: Symptoms & Signs, Examining a Victim, Treatment & Aftercare   Mon Jan 09, 2012 2:50 pm

Symptoms and Signs
-Injuries and illness usually manifest themselves as groups of distinctive features.
-2 types of feature :
→symptoms
→signs
-examine the victim throughly to prevent missing any features.
-examine a conscious victim in the position in which he is found and
support any obvious injury.
-if the victim is unconscious, the airway must be cleared and kept open. Do not remove items of clothing unnecessarily,
and do not leave the victim exposed to cold any longer than required.
-use your senses→look, listen, feel and smell.

Assessing Symptoms
-Symptoms are sensations that the casualty experiences and may be able to describe.
-ask the victim about the any symptoms that she is experiencing.

Looking for Signs
-Signs are details of a victim's condition that you can see, feel, hear or smell.
-if the victim is unconscious, you have to make a diagnosis purely on the history of the incident, information obtainedfrom any onlookers, and the sign that you find.

-apply your senses
-look for features such as swelling, bleeding, discoloration, or deformity.
-feel the rhythm and strength of pulse.
-listen to breathing and any abnormal sounds.
-feel for tenderness over the bones.
-check if the victimis unable to perform normal functions.

Examining a Victim
-Head-to-toe survey
1)run your hand carefully over the scalp to feel for bleeding, swelling or depression.

2)speak clearly to the victim in both ears.
Look for blood or clear fluid coming from either ear.

3)examine both eyes. Check the size of pupils whether are them in equal size and
whether they react the light. Look for any foreign object, blood or bruising in the
white of the eyes.

4)check the nose for discharges as you did for the ears.

5)note the rate, depth, and nature of the breathing. Look and feel gently inside
the mouth for anything that might obstruct the airway.

6)note the colour, temperature, and the state of the skin.

7)loosen the clothing around the neck, run your fingers gently along the spine
from the base of the skull downwards as far as possible to check for any irregularity,
swelling, or tenderness.

8)feel the ribcage to check for deformity, irregularity, or tenderness.

9)gently feel along both the collar bones and the shoulders for any abnormalities.

10)check the movements of the elbows, wrists, and fingers by asking the victim to
bend and straighten the arm and hand.

11)gently pass your hand under the hollow of the back and feel along the spine to
check for abnormalities.

12)gently feel the victim's abdomen to identify any rigidity or tenderness of the
abdomen's muscular wall.

13)feel both sides of the hips and gently move the pelvis to look for signs of fracture.
Check the clothing for any evidence of incontinence or bleeding from orifices.

14)ask the victim to raise each leg in turn, and to moveher ankles and knees.

15)check the movement and feeling in the toes.

Treatment and Aftercare
Treatment priorities
-carry out primary survey, make sure the victim's airway is kept open
and clear
.
-control bleeding.
-carry out secondary survey.
-treat large wounds and burns.
-immobilise bone and joint injuries.
-give appropriate treatment for other injuries and conditions found.
-chck vital signs(level of response, pulse and breathing) regularly.

Arranging aftercare
-call a doctor for advice.
-call an ambulance to arrange transport to hospital.
-pass care of the victim to a doctor, nurse, or a ambulance crew.
-advice the victim to see a doctor.

#Caution#
-any victim who has impaired consciousness, serious injuries, severe breathing
difficulties, or signs of shock is not allowed to go home.
Stay with the victim until help arrives.
-do notgive anything by mouth to any victim who may have internal injuries
or to anyone who needs hospital care.
-do not allow the victim to smoke.

Care of personal belongings
-ask a bystander to act as a witness while you search the victim's bag for clue.
-make sure all the vicitm's belongings go with him to hospital or are handed
over to the police
.

The use of medication
Whenever a victim takes medication, it is essential to make sure that:
-it is appropriate for the condition.
-it is not out of date.
-any precautions are strictly followed.
-the recommended dose is not exceeded.
-a record is kept of the name and dose and the time and method of administration.

*If the necessary medication is not available, seek medical help.

Passing on Information
-Making a report-
your report should include:
-victim's name and address.
-history of the incident or illness.
-brief description of any injuries.
-any unusual behaviour.
-any treatment given, and when.
-level of response, pulse and breathing.
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