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 ASSESSING A VICTIM-Primary and Secondary Survey

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chuciamin



Number of posts : 11
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Registration date : 2011-10-25

PostSubject: ASSESSING A VICTIM-Primary and Secondary Survey   Sat Dec 03, 2011 11:07 am

Primary Survey [ DRCAB ]

#Danger
Make the situation safe and then assess the casualty.

#Response
If the casualty appears unconscious check his respond by tap and shout method.
‘Sir can you hear me?’, ‘Miss are you okay?’ and gently tap their shoulders.

*If there is a response:
•If there is no further danger, leave the casualty in the position found and summon help if needed.
•Treat any condition found and monitor vital signs - level of response, pulse and breathing.
•Continue monitoring the casualty either until help arrives or he recovers.

*If there is no response:
-Send a helper to dial 999 for an ambulance.
-Check victim's breathingby using LOOK, LISTEN and FEEL method.
•LOOK to see if the chest is rising and falling.
•LISTEN for breathing.
•FEEL for breath against your cheek.
If the casualty is breathing normally, place them in the recovery position.





If the casualty is not breathing normally

#Compressions
Push hard and fast on the center of the chest 30 times, at a rate of at least 100 compressions a minute. Push down at least 2 inches with each compression.





#Airway
Open the airway by placing one hand on the casualty’s forehead and gently tilting the head back, then lift the chin using 2 fingers only.( head tilt, chin lift method.)

#Breathing
Pinch the victim's nose closed. Take a normal breath and cover the victim's mouth with your mouth, creating an airtight seal. Give two breaths (one second each). Watch for chest rise as you give each breath.

*Keep giving sets of 30 compressions and two breaths until any of the condition below occurs.
-AED (Automated external defibrillator) available.
-EMS (Emergency medical services) arrived.
-The victim shows sign of life.
-First aider is tired.

Secondary Survey

#Taking history- question the victim and talk to any bystanders who witnessed the incident.
-try to form a full picture of the situation. For example:
*when did the victim last have something to eat or drink?
*does the victim have any illnesss, and is he taking any medication?
*how much force was involved in an injury, and how was it exerted(opposite)?
*ask about the environment.
*find out the victim's age and state of health.

#External clues



Medicines



''Puffer'' inhaler- indicates that the victim has asthma.



Warning bracelet- may give a phone number for information about the victim's medical history.



Auto-injector- contains epinephrine (adrenaline), for people at risk of anaphylatic shock.

#Mechanics of injury
-you can gain further clues about possible injuries and their extent by looking at the circumstances in which the injury was sustained and the force involved. This can help people to predict the type and severity of injury.

-Questions to ask the victim or the witnesses.
*was the victim ejected from a vehicle?
*was the victim wearing a correctly adjusted seatbelt?
*did the vehicle roll over?
*was the victim wearing a helmet?
*how far did the victim fall?
*what type fo surface did he land on?
*is there evidence of body contact with a solid object?

-Pass on all the information that you have gathered to the emergency services.
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