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Registration date : 2011-10-25

PostSubject: FIRST-AID ESSENTIALS   Fri Oct 28, 2011 9:52 pm

# First Aid is the initial assistance or treatment given to someone who is injured or suddenly taken ill. #

Being a First Aider
#You have to
-protect victims and others at the scene from possible danger.
-identify the injury or the illness of the victim.
-treat the most serious conditions first.
-to arrange the victim's removal to hospital, into the care of a doctor, or to his home.
-report your observations to those taking over care of the victim.
-prevent cross-infection between yourself and the victim.
-act calmly and logicall, be gentle but firm.
-speak clearly and purposefully.
-explain what you are going to do and answer questions honestly.
-never leave someone whom you believe to be dying or seriously injured. continue to talk to him, never let the person to feel alone.
-always assess the situation first and make sure that the situation you are entering is safe for you.
-stay calm.

#Preventing Cross Infection #
- wash your hands with soap and water before treating a victim. -
- use protective disposable gloves. ( if not available, ask the victim to dress his own wound, or enclose your hands in
clean plastic bags.) -
- cover cuts and grazes on your hands with waterproof dressings. -
- wear plastic apron when dealing with large quantities of body fluids. -
- avoid touching a wound or a dressing. -
- do not treat a wound with bare hands. -
- do not breathe, cough, sneeze over a wound. -
- take care not to prick yourself with any needle near the victim or cut yourself on glass. -
- use face shield or pocket mask when giving rescue breaths. -
- depose of all waste safely. -

Action At an Emergency

# First Aid Priorities #
- Assess situation ->> observe what has happened and look for dangers to yourself and to the victim.
- Make the area safe ->> protect victim from danger.
- Give emergency aid ->> treat the life-threatening injuries first.
- Get help from others->> make sure the necessary medical aid has been called and is on its way.

# Making a Call # -emergency services ->> dial 999

What To Tell
-> your name and say that you are a first aider.
-> your telephone number.
-> the exact location of the incident.
-> the type and gravity of the emergency.
-> the number, sex, approximate ages and the condition of the victims.
-> details of any hazards.

Traffic Incidents
# Make an area safe #
- wear something light or reflective, and use a torch.
- send others to warn other drivers to slow down.
- set up warning triangles or lights at least 45m (49 yds) from the site in each direction.
- switch off ignition of damaged vehicle, disconnect the battery. Switch off fuel supply on diesel
vehicles and motorcycles.
- stabilise vehicles ( apply handbrake and put it in gear / place blocks in front of the wheels.

# Check the victims #
- always assume that there is a neck (spinal) injury in victim who has been injured in a traffic incident,support the head with you hands until helps arrives.
- do not move the victim unless it is absolutely necessary.

*Remember not to use lifts, do not rush into the scene and do not attempt to fight a fireunless you have make sure that
you are not putting your own safety at risk.

* Break the Triangle Of Fire to stop the fire.

# if you see a fire in a building - activate the first fire alarm you see and try to help people out of building.
- close doors behind you to help prevent the fire from spreading.

#clothing on fire
- stop the victim from moving because any movement or breeze will fan the flames.
- drop the victim to the ground.
- wrap the victim tightly in some heavy fabric.
- roll the victim along the ground.
- lay the victim down with the burning side uppermost and pour liquid on it to cool it.
*(Stop > Drop > Roll)*

#if trapped in a burning building
- go into a room with windows and shut the door.
- stay low, if the room is filled with smoke.
- open windows and put some fabric against the bottom of the door to keep the smoke out.

Last edited by chuciamin on Thu Nov 17, 2011 3:56 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: FIRST-AID ESSENTIALS   Sat Oct 29, 2011 7:41 am

Electrical Injuries

- when a person is electrocuted, the passage of elctrical currentthrough the body may stun him, cause his breathing and heartbeat to stop.
- the electrical current may cause burns at where it enters and exits the body.
- the current will also causes muscular spasm which prevent a victim from breaking contact with it.

# High-voltage current # - usually immediately fatal.
-the victim who survives wil hav severe burns.
- the shock produces muscular spasmthat may propel the victim some distance, causing fractures.
-materials such as dry wood or clothing will nt protect you.
-the power must be cut off and isolated before you approach the victim.
-open the victim airway and check breathing, be ready to perform CPR.
- keep bystanders away from the scene. a safe distance is more than 18m(20yds) from the source of electricity.

# Low-Voltage Current #
- switch off the current at the mains or the meter point.//remove the plug or wrench the cable free.
- stand on some dry insulating material to protect yourself.
- use something made of wood to push the victim's limbs away from the electrical source or push the source away from victim.
- if not able to break the contact, loop a length of rope around victim's ankles or under the arms and pull him away from the source.

Water Rescue
# cold water increase s the danger s to both the victim and the rescuer because :
-uncontrollable gasping when entering the water, risk of water inhalation.
-a sudden rise of blood presure, can precipitate a heart attack.
-sudden inability to swim.

# your first priority
- get the victim on to dry land (stay on land and pull him from the water with stick,branch../throw him a float.)
-shield the victim from the wind.
-keep the victim warm.
-arrange or send the victim to casualty.
*if the victim is unconscious, lift him clear of the water, and carry him with her head lower than chest to protect the airway.
if he vomits.
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