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zhi yong Y

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Registration date : 2007-11-30

PostSubject: wounds and bleeding   Sat Jan 17, 2009 12:13 pm

WOUND AND BLEEDING
Any injuries may cause wound and bleeding. Wounds can present in open or close form. Open wound consist of Incised Wound, Laceration Wound, Abrasion Wound, Puncture Wound and Gunshot Wound, while Close Wound consist of Contusion Wound.
Bleeding also presents in 2 forms that is external and internal bleeding. The bleeding source could be from an Arterial, Vein or Capillary blood vessel. Any of the above wounds could have any of the bleedings stated above.
TYPES OF WOUND
1) INCISED WOUND
• It is a “Clean Cut” wound.
• Edge of the wound is straight.
• Commonly caused by knifes, blades, glasses and other sharp objects.
• All types of External Bleeding can happen.
2) LACERATION WOUND
• Rough and uneven edge can be seen on the wound.
• Commonly caused by flesh hit by a moving blunt object head on.
• Could be seen in open fracture injury.
• All types of External and Internal Bleeding.
3) ABRASION WOUND
• This wound only happens on the surface of the skin.
• Happens when friction occurs.
• Normally capillary bleeding can be seen.


4) CONTUSION WOUND
• Any blow that does not create an open wound ends up as a contusion wound.
• Any knock or a blow causes breakage in the blood vessels internally.
• Internal bleeding, where organs could be ruptured.
• A Contusion shows an internal bleeding that could be life threatening.
5) PUNCTURE WOUND
• A small hole is the characteristic of this wound.
• Commonly caused by nail, needles and other objects that are sharp pointed.
• All types of bleeding can happen.
6) GUNSHOT WOUND
• Only happens due to gunshot.
• Serious life threatening injury could happen, if any organs are ruptured.
• Wound point small but bad damage internally.
• All type of bleeding can happen.
TYPES OF BLEEDING
1) ARTERIAL BLEEDING
• Arteries are blood vessel that carries blood out of the heart.
• The flow of blood in this blood vessel is high and also the pressure.
• In an injury the blood gushes and spurt out from the injured area.
• It is a serious type of bleeding, shock is common.
• Blood colour is bright red, as it is rich of oxygen.
2) VEIN BLEEDING
• Veins are blood vessel that carries blood back to heart.
• Pressure is reduced here and the blood flows out only.
• Blood colour is dark red, as it is rich of carbon dioxide.
• Prolong bleeding could lead to shock.
3) CAPILLARY BLEEDING
• Capillary is the tiniest blood vessel in the body that links artery and vein.
• Almost everywhere in the body there is capillary blood vessel.
• Any injury to the body there will surely be a capillary bleeding.
• It is an oozing type of bleeding.
• No chance of shock in adult but could be dangerous to infant and young children.

EMERGENCY MEASURES
a) Follow the sequence in Trauma Life Support, when resume in Rapid Body Survey these steps are to be followed.
b) Proper ventilation, keep everyone clear for better ventilation.
c) Console and support the victim if victim is conscious. Remind him he is o.k.
d) Talk and keep the conversation with the victim, to ensure his conscious level.
e) Do not provide food or drinks.
f) Attempt stop bleeding by direct pressure.
g) Then bandage the area.
h) Elevate the limbs, if the bleeding is from the limbs.
i) Splint the limbs and decrease movement.
j) Don’t pull out any object that is embedded in.
k) Secure the object from moving to prevent further injury.
l) Do not use a tourniquet or press on major vessel to stop bleeding. Also do not use coffee, tobacco or other substances to stop bleeding.
m) In an injury to abdomen please follow the steps as shown in the pictures below.

PROTRUDING ABDOMINAL CONTENT TREATMENT.
n) As for nasal bleeding these step needs to be done. Pinch nose and lean forward (face down). You may also place some ice pack on the forehead.

NASAL BLEEDING

o) The most important thing here is to stop bleeding. Direct compression is the best solution or a bandage could be used to stop bleeding
p) If it is not possible as in internal bleeding fast transportation is essential.
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